Know the Guidance and Research

COVID-19 Vaccine Summary Chart

Reference APhA’s COVID-19 Vaccine Summary Chart to compare recommendations for use, key information, and other clinical considerations.


Resources on COVID-19 Vaccines

Visit APhA’s library of COVID-19 vaccine resources in the Pharmacists’ Guide to Coronavirus. Find the latest guidance and information about how to implement vaccination programs in your practice, such as storage, documentation, and billing.

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Research on COVID-19 Vaccines

Visit the New England Journal of Medicine’s COVID-19 Vaccine Resource Center to view a library of available research on COVID-19 vaccines.

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Science Brief: COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination

Visit this CDC webpage for a summary of the latest evidence, including information about the real-world effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines and studies suggesting the vaccine is effective against variants of concern.

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COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents and Children

Review APhA’s FAQ about the use and safety of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children and adolescents, including key differences in the administration and storage of the pediatric-indicated vaccine and the adolescent/adult-indicated vaccine.

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COVID-19 Vaccine Algorithm

Reference APhA’s practice tool designed to help pharmacists and the pharmacy team determine patient eligibility, timing, and use of COVID-19 vaccines for primary, additional, and/or booster doses.


Considerations for COVID-19 Vaccination in Immunocompromised Patients

This resource outlines CDC’s age-specific recommendations for moderately or severely immunocompromised individuals.


Research Supporting the Safety and Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccines

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (BNT162b2)
  • “Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine” (Polack, et al. NEJM. Dec. 31, 2020) provides the safety and efficacy findings from the Phase 2/3 trial.
  • “Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates” (Walsh, et al. NEJM. Dec. 17, 2020) provides safety and immunogenicity findings from the Phase 1 trial.
Moderna (mRNA-1273)
Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine (Ad26.COV2.S)
  • “Safety and Efficacy of Single-Dose Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine against Covid-19” (Sadoff, et al. NEJM. Apr. 21, 2021) provides safety and efficacy findings from the Phase 3 trial.
  • “Interim Results of a Phase 1–2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 Vaccine” (Sadoff, et al. NEJM. May. 13, 2021) provides safety and immunogenicity findings from the Phase 1/2 trial.

Real-World Findings

  • A review of safety monitoring data for the Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine found that 97% of reported reactions postvaccination were nonserious. Seventeen thrombotic events with thrombocytopenia were reported in the nearly 8 million people vaccinated at that time.
  • One study in the United States looked at nearly 4,000 vaccinated (with Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines) health care personnel, first responders, and other essential workers who were tested weekly for COVID-19 to determine how well the vaccines work. Those who were fully vaccinated were 90% less likely to get COVID-19.
  • Another study in the United States found that fully vaccinated (with Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines) adults over the age of 65 years were 94% less likely to be hospitalized from COVID-19.
  • “BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Mass Vaccination Setting” (Dagan, et al. NEJM. April 15, 2021) evaluates the effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine based on data from Israel’s largest health care organization.